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    5G brings space to filters, and ceramics will become mainstream.

    The three major changes in the construction of 5G base stations and the doubling of the number of stations will drive investment opportunities in related fields.

    5G trillion investment opens, base station RF devices will benefit first.
    Mobile communication base station is mainly composed of baseband processing unit BBU (Base Band Unit), radio frequency processing unit RRU (Remote Radio Unit) and antenna feed system. Baseband unit (BBU) is responsible for centralized control and management of the entire base station system, complete the uplink and downlink baseband processing functions, and provide physical interface with radio frequency units, transmission network, complete information exchange. The RF unit (RRU) communicates with the BBU through the baseband RF interface, and completes the conversion between the baseband signal and the RF signal.  Antenna is the converter of circuit signal and space radiated electromagnetic wave. It radiates or receives electromagnetic wave to space. It is the connection that independently undertakes the terminal link.
    In order to meet the rich application scenarios and network performance requirements of the 5G era, the software and hardware architectures of each component unit on the base station side have changed significantly.
    For BBU, 3GPP proposes a 5G-oriented wireless access network reconfiguration scheme, which divides the BBU into CU-DU two-tier architecture. DU (Distributed Unit) is a distributed unit, which is responsible for meeting real-time requirements and has part of the underlying baseband protocol processing functions. CU (Centralized Unit) is the central unit, with non-real-time wireless high-level protocol functions.
    In terms of antenna, Massive MIMO (large scale antenna) technology is expected to be commercially available. Based on the principle of beam shaping, the technology deploys hundreds of antennas at the base station, modulates the beams of dozens of target receivers, transmits dozens of signals simultaneously on the same frequency resource through spatial signal isolation, and greatly improves the spectrum utilization efficiency and network capacity.
    For RRU, the application of Massive MIMO technology will push AAU (Active Antenna Unit) into the mainstream of development. In the widely used distributed base station, RRU is far away and is connected to the antenna through the feeder. In the future, with the commercialization of Massive MIMO, each antenna oscillator will be directly connected to a distributed micro-radio, including a digital signal processing module (DSP), a digital-to-analog (DAC) / analog-to-digital (ADC) converter, an amplifier (PA), a low-noise amplifier (LNA), a filter and a duplexer. (duplexer) and so on. The combination of RRU and antenna can not only reduce the cost of rental and operation of the station, but also reduce the signal loss caused by feeder and further improve the transmission quality.
    The three major changes in the construction of 5G base stations and the doubling of the number of stations will drive investment opportunities in related fields. Firstly, the separation of BBU two-tier architecture is expected to stimulate the large-scale demand of fiber optic cable, optical module and optical transmission equipment secondly, the successful commercial application of Massive MIMO technology is expected to promote the market space of printed circuit board (PCB), copper clad laminate (CCL) and antenna oscillator thirdly, the wide application of AAU will lead to the promotion of radio frequency. The technology upgrading and demand growth of devices have promoted the volume and price of RF devices. Referring to the series in-depth reports on 5G industrial chain investment clocks, Massive MIMO''s restructuring of antenna industrial chain and 5G''s investment opportunities in PCB, CCL and antenna oscillators (see 5G Series II, Series VI and Series VII for details), this study will focus on the elastic space of 5G RF devices.
    As one of the definitive investment directions of 5G, RF devices are expected to achieve volume and price rise. Quantitatively, based on the application of active antennas and Massive MIMO technology, the number of devices in the RF unit will increase on a large scale. Traditional 4G base stations are equipped with T2R, 4T4R, and 8T8R MIMOs, while Massive MIMOs are arranged in array form, reaching 64T64R, or even 128T128R. If a 64T64R base station is taken as an example and each channel needs a set of RF devices, the number of RF devices will be 16 times that of the traditional 4FDD 2T2R base station. At unit price, the bandwidth of 5G communication band will be greatly increased, and will gradually expand to higher frequency band millimeter wave, so the design of the filter is more complex, and the value of its monomer will be greatly improved. With the volume and price rising, RF related devices will benefit significantly in the 5G industry chain.
    Base station RF device industry cycle characteristics are obvious, from the 3G, 4G development experience, base station device investment is often the first to start in the early stage of network construction. In early 2009, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology officially issued 3G licences, China entered the 3G cycle at the end of 2013, the Ministry officially issued 4G licences, China entered the 4G cycle. In the early days of 3G in 2009 and 4G in 2014, the revenue growth rate of base station RF device related enterprises reached the peak from the net profit point of view, most of the related enterprises reached the peak at the beginning of the cycle, reached the low point during the transition period, and the profit gradually declined after the initial investment reached the high point. Therefore, we believe that the investment in base station antennas and RF devices may take the lead in launching with the introduction of 5G commercialization in 2020.
    Filter is RF core device, 5G era market space is expected to double.
    RF components include filters, duplexers, combiners and tower top amplifiers. Among them, the filter is the RF core device, its main role is to make the transmission and reception signals of specific frequency components through, and greatly attenuate other frequency components.
    In the 3G/4G era, the coaxial coaxial cavity filter is the mainstream choice in the market. Conventional filters are usually implemented by metal coaxial cavities, in which different frequencies of electromagnetic waves oscillate in the coaxial cavity filters, so that the resonant frequencies of the filters can be retained, while the remaining frequencies of electromagnetic waves dissipate in the oscillation. In the era of 3G/4G, the metal coaxial cavity has become a market because of its lower cost.

    date2018-8-9 Read3280second
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